ACACIA Publications (Ant Coexistence and Mutualism)


ACACIA Publications (Ant Coexistence and Mutualism)

  1. Young, T.P., C.H. Stubblefield & L.A. Isbell. 1997. Ants on swollen-thorn acacias: species coexistence in a simple system. Oecologia 109:98-107. pdf
  2. Stanton, M L. & T. P. Young. 1999. Thorny relationships. Natural History Nov.: 28-31.
  3. Stanton, M.L., T.M. Palmer, T.P. Young, A. Evans, M.L. Turner. 1999. Sterilization and canopy modification of a swollen thorn acacia by a plant-ant. Nature 401:578-580. pdf
  4. Palmer, T.M., T.P. Young & M.L. Stanton. 2000. Short-term dynamics of an acacia ant community. Oecologia 123:425-435. pdf
  5. Mugo, John Kagori. 2000. Biological nitrogen fixation in Acacia drepanolobium . MSc Diss., Department of Botany, University of Nairobi.
  6. Palmer, T.M. 2001. Competition and Coexistence in a Guild of African Acacia Ants. Ph.D. Diss. University of California, Davis.
  7. Wood WF, Palmer TM, Stanton ML. 2002. A comparison of volatiles in mandibular glands from three Crematogaster ant symbionts of the whistling thorn acacia. Biochem Syst Ecol 30:217-222. pdf
  8. Stanton, M.L, T.M. Palmer , and T.P. Young. 2002. Tradeoffs between competition and colonization at two stages of colony development within a guild of African acacia-ants. Ecological Monographs 72:347-363. pdf (See also this external summary)
  9. Young, T.P., M.L. Stanton & C. Christian. 2003. Effects of natural and simulated herbivory on spine lengths of Acacia drepanolobium in Kenya. Oikos 101:171-179. pdf
  10. Palmer, T.M., T.P. Young & M.L. Stanton. 2003. Burning bridges: priority effects and the persistence of a competitively subordinate acacia-ant in Laikipia, Kenya. Oecologia 133:372-379. pdf
  11. Palmer, T.M. 2003. Spatial habitat heterogeneity influences competition and coexistence in an African acacia ant guild. Ecology 84:2842-2855. pdf
  12. Palmer, T.M., M.L. Stanton, & T.P. Young. 2003. Competition and coexistence: exploring the mechanisms that restrict and maintain diversity within mutualist guilds. American Naturalist 161:S63-S79. pdf
  13. Huntzinger, P.M., R. Karban, T.P. Young & T.M. Palmer. 2004. Relaxation of induced indirect defenses of acacias following removal of mammalian herbivores. Ecology 85:609-614. pdf
  14. Palmer, T.M. 2004. Wars of attrition: colony size determines competitive outcomes in a guild of African acacia-ants. Animal Behavior 68:993-1004. pdf
  15. Stanton, M.L, T.M. Palmer , and T.P. Young. 2005.  Ecological barriers to early colony establishment in three coexisting acacia ant species in Kenya. Insectes Sociaux 52:393-401. pdf
  16. Quicke, D.L.J. and M.L. Stanton. 2005.   Trigastrotheca laikipiensis sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): a new species of brood parasitic wasp that attacks foundress queens of three coexisting acacia-ant species in Kenya. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14:182-190.
  17. Wood, W.F., T.M. Palmer & M.L. Stanton. 2006.  Volatiles in the mandibular gland of Tetraponera penzigi: A plant ant of the whistling thorn acacia. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 34:536-538.
  18. Palmer, T.M. and A.K. Brody. 2007. Mutualism as reciprocal exploitation: African plant-ants defend foliar but not reproductive structures. Ecology 88:3004-3011. pdf
  19. Palmer, T.M., M.L. Stanton, T.P. Young, J.R. Goheen, R.M Pringle & R. Karban. 2008. Breakdown of an ant-plant mutualism following the loss of large herbivores from an African savanna.  Science 319:192-195 . pdf
  20. Isbell, L.A. and T. P. Young. 2008. Interspecific and temporal variation in domatia contents of the ant-plant Acacia drepanolobium, a staple food for patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in Laikipia, Kenya.  American Journal of Primatology 69:1387-1398.
  21. Palmer, T.M., D.F. Doak, M.L. Stanton, J.L. Bronstein, E.T. Kiers, T.P. Young, J.R. Goheen & R.M. Pringle. 2010. Synergy of multiple partners, including freeloaders, increases host fitness in a multispecies mutualism. PNAS 107:17234-17239. pdf See also this.
  22. Goheen, J.R. & T.M. Palmer. 2010. Defensive plant-ants stabilize megaherbivore-driven landscape change in an African savanna. Current Biology 19:1768-1772.
  23. Kiers, E. T., T. M. Palmer, A. R. Ives, J. Bruno, and J. L. Bronstein. 2010. Mutualisms in a changing world: an evolutionary perspective. Ecology Letters 13:1459-1474.
  24. Stanton, M. L. and T. M. Palmer. 2011. The high cost of mutualism: effects of four species of East African ant symbionts on their myrmecophyte host tree. Ecology 92:1073–1082.
  25. Kuria, S.K. and M. H. Villet. 2012. The role of ants and mammalian herbivores on the structure and composition of insect communities found on canopies of Acacia drepanolobium. African Journal of Agricultural Research 7:5317-5331.


  26. Rubin, B.E.R., R.M. Anderson, D. Kennedy, T.M. Palmer, M.L. Stanton. 2013. Polygyny in the nest-site limited acacia-ant Crematogaster mimosae. Insectes Sociaux, 60:231-241.

  27. Rudolph, K.P. and T.M. Palmer. 2013. Carbohydrate as fuel for foraging, resource defense and colony growth – a long-term experiment with the plant-ant Crematogaster nigriceps. Biotropica 45: 620-627.

  28. Palmer, T.M., M.L. Stanton, T.P. Young, J.S. Lemboi, J.R. Goheen, and R.M. Pringle. 2013. A role for indirect facilitation in supporting diversity in a guild of African acacia ants. Ecology 94:1531-1539.

  29. Palmer, T.M. and A.K. Brody. 2013. Enough is enough: the effects of symbiotic ant abundance on herbivory, growth and reproduction in an African acacia. Ecology 94:683-691.

  30. Tarnita, C.E., T.M. Palmer, and R.M. Pringle. 2014. Colonisation and competition dynamics can explain incomplete sterilisation parasitism in ant–plant symbioses. Ecology Letters, 17:1290-1298.

  31. Kimuyu, D.K., R.L. Sensenig, C. Riginos, K.E. Veblen & T.P. Young. 2014. Wild and domestic browsers and grazers reduce fuels, fire temperatures, and acacia ant mortality in an African savanna. Ecological Applications 24:741-749.

  32. Palmer, T.M., E.G. Pringle, A. Stier, and R.D. Holt. 2015. Mutualism in a community context. Pp. 159-180 in: Mutualism. J.L. Bronstein (ed). Oxford University Press.

  33. Riginos, C., M.A. Karande, D.I. Rubenstein, and T.M. Palmer. 2015. Disruption of a protective ant–plant mutualism by an invasive ant increases elephant damage to savanna trees. Ecology 96: 654–661.

  34. Rudolf, K.P. and J.P. McEntee. 2016. Spoils of war and peace: enemy adoption and queen-right colony fusion follow costly intraspecific conflict in acacia ants. Behavioral Ecology 27:793-802.

  35. Pringle, R.M., K.M. Prior, T.M. Palmer, T.P. Young, and J.R. Goheen. 2016. Large herbivores promote habitat specialization and beta diversity of African savanna trees. Ecology 97:2640-2657.

  36. Palmer, T.M. and T.P. Young. 2016. Integrating ecological complexity into our understanding of ant-plant mutualism: ant-acacia interactions in African savannas. Pp. 200-222 in: Oliveira, P.S. and Koptur, S., eds.  Ant-Plant Interactions: Impacts of Humans on Terrestrial Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  37. Abonyo, E.A., N.K. Maniania, C.M. Warui, E.D. Kokwaro, T.M. Palmer, D.F. Doak & A.K. Brody. 2016. Effects of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae on non-target ants associated with Odontotermes spp. (Isoptera: Termitidae) termite mounds in Kenya. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 36:128-134.

  38. Ruiz-Guajardo, J.C., D.L. Grossenbacher, R.K. Grosberg, T.M. Palmer & M.L. Stanton. 2017. Impacts of worker density in colony-level aggression, expansion, and survival of the acacia-ant Crematogaster mimosae. Ecological Monographs 87:246–259.

  39. Sensenig, R.L., D.K. Kimuyu, J.C. Ruiz Guajardo, K.E. Veblen, C. Riginos & T.P. Young. 2017. Fire disturbance disrupts an acacia ant-plant mutualism in favor of a subordinate ant species. Ecology 98:1455-1464.

  40. Palmer, T.M., C. Riginos, R. Damiani, N. Morgan, J. Lemboi, J. Lengingiro, J.C. Ruiz-Guajardo & R.M. Pringle. 2017. Influence of neighboring plants on the dynamics of an ant-acacia protection mutualism. Ecology 9:3034-3043.

  41. Prior, K.M. and T.M. Palmer. 2018. Economy of scale: third partner strengthens a keystone ant-plant mutualism. Ecology 99:335–346.

  42. Giron D, G Dubreuil, A Bennett, F Dedeine, M Dicke et al. 2018.Promises and challenges in insect–plant interactions. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 166: 319-343.

  43. Tamashiro RA, PD Milligan, TM Palmer. 2019. Left out in the cold: temperaturedependence of defense in an African ant–plant mutualism. Ecology 100 (6), e02712.

  44. Palmer TM, C Riginos, PD Milligan, BR Hays, AG Pietrek, NJ Maiyo, et al. 2020. Frenemy at the gate: Invasion by Pheidole megacephala facilitates a competitively subordinate plant ant in Kenya. Ecology 102:e03230.

  45. Hays BR, C Riginos, TM Palmer, BC Gituku, JR Goheen. 2020. Using photography to estimate above-ground biomass of small trees. Journal of Tropical Ecology 36:213-219.

  46. Pietrek AG, JR Goheen, C Riginos, NJ Maiyo, TM Palmer. 2021. Density dependence and the spread of invasive big-headed ants (Pheidole megacephala) in an East African savanna. Oecologia 195: 667-676.

  47. Milligan P, T Martin, G John, C Riginos, J Goheen, S Carpenter, T Palmer. 2020. Invasive ants reduce carbon fixation for a foundational East African ant-plant. Authorea Preprints

  48. Rabideau-Childers, R., K.I.W. Angier, B.Z.W. Dean, M. Blumstein, W.S. Darling, W. S., Kennedy-Yoon, C.H. Ziemke, C.A. Perez-Martinez, D. Wu, W. Ye, I. Yekwayo, D.M. Kimuyu, D.J. Martins, & N.E. Pierce. 2022. Evidence of nutrient translocation in response to smoke exposure by the East African ant acacia, Vachellia drepanolobiumJournal of Ecology 12: e8244,

  49. Milligan, P.D., TA Martin, EG Pringle, KM Prior, TM Palmer 2022. Symbiotic ant traits produce differential hostplant carbon and water dynamics in a multispecies mutualism. Ecology 103: e3880.

  50. Hays, B.R., C Riginos, TM Palmer, DF Doak, BC Gituku, NJ Maiyo, 2022. Demographic consequences of mutualism disruption: Browsing and bigheaded ant invasion drive acacia population declines. Ecology 103: e3655

  51. Milligan, P.D., TA Martin, EG Pringle, C Riginos, GM Mizell, TM Palmer. 2022. A soilnesting invasive ant disrupts carbon dynamics in saplings of a foundational ant–plant. Journal of Ecology 110:359-373.